Sunday, September 29, 2013

242.0 Saintis Islam yang unggul

Abu Bakr Al-Razi - pakar perubatan

1.   Abu Bakr Al-Razi is one of the best-known contributors to medical knowledge. A native of Persia, Al-Razi traveled to Baghdad to study medicine and later became director of a large hospital there. He wrote more than 200 books and was a master of observation and experimental medicine. Great discoveries and treatises on subjects as diverse as pediatrics, oral hygiene, smallpox, measles, allergies, scabies, and kidney stones are attributed to him.

Abu Ali ibn Sina - ensaiklopedia perubatan

2.   Ibn Sina’s masterpiece work was titled The Canon of Medicine. This encyclopedia of all medical knowledge of the time consisted of more than a million words and included summaries of Greek medicine, anatomical drawings, descriptions of diseases and their cures, and an outline of 760 medicinal plants and the drugs that could be derived from them. This monumental work was translated into many languages and served as the main medical textbook and teaching guide until the mid-nineteenth century.

In addition to the works of these two great medical authorities, the works of more than 400 other physicians and authors were translated into European languages. All had a great impact on the future of medicine.

Abu Abdullah al-Khawarizmi - pakar matematik

3.   Abu Abdullah al-Khawarizmi:  One of the greatest mathematicians who ever lived. Born in modern-day Uzbekistan, he was raised near Baghdad and was associated with the great institutions of learning there. Al-Khawarizmi is known as the founder of algebra and he also introduced the concept of algorithm. The word “algebra” itself comes from the title of a book that he wrote on the subject, Al-Jabr wa al-Muqabilah (The Book of Integration and Equation), and the term “algorithm” derives from his last name.

Al-Khawarizmi took the prevailing knowledge of the time and enriched it with his unique contributions. He developed solutions for linear and quadratic equations and detailed trigonometric tables and geometric and arithmetical concepts.

Abu Raihan Al-Biruni - ahli fizik

4.   Al-Biruni studied Greek, Syriac, and Sanskrit and was a contemporary of the famous physician Ibn Sina. Al-Biruni made such extensive contributions to science that an index of his written works would cover more than sixty pages! He wrote about Earth’s rotation, made calculations of latitude and longitude, and used mathematical techniques to determine the seasons.

Al-Biruni wrote about the speed of light versus the speed of sound and accurately determined the weights of more than a dozen elements and compounds. He studied angles, trigonometry, and the Indian numeral system. Like all other Muslim scholars of the time, his interests were diverse. He also wrote about botany, ancient history, and geography.


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